Types of Drugs: Opioids, Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens and More

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Types of Drugs: Opioids, Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens and More

The activation of the dopamine circuits explains the sensation of euphoria. In addition to physical and mental effects, substance use can adversely affect a person’s relationships, alcohol and seizures can alcohol or withdrawal trigger a seizure home and work life, and mental health. In addition, SUD from illegal opioids is a large public health problem in the U.S. that can lead to overdose and death.


  1. No evidence has been found that they produce physical dependence, but psychological.
  2. As illegal drugs are not controlled substances the quality and strength may differ from one batch to another.
  3. This can be risky due to the unpredictable effects that the drug may have.
  4. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality.
  5. Dopamine can stay active up to 300 times longer than it normally activates normally.

Like nicotine and alcohol, an individual can build up a tolerance to caffeine, which means they need to consume more to feel its effects. This can lead to dependency and withdrawal symptoms when a person stops taking it. a guide to taking ecstasy as safely as possible These substances can affect awareness, thoughts, mood, and behavior. Cannabis or marijuana is a natural psychoactive drug derived from the cannabis plant. The drug acts as a hallucinogen with depressant-like effects.

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This effect did not occur when cannabis was given to adult rats. All these effects are transient, their duration depends on the sensitivity of each person and the quantity taken but usually do not last more than an hour. At high doses it can lead to panic, alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone wikipedia toxic delirium and psychosis. Effects of peyote include uncoordinated movements, excessive sweating, and flushing. Psilocybin can cause feelings of relaxation or introspection, but it can also produce nervousness, paranoia, and even feelings of panic.

International Standards for the Treatment of Drug Use Disorders

These drugs often offer a sedative experience, making them a tempting choice for teens and adults who wish to escape everyday stresses. Like stimulants, depressants also impact the body’s CNS but with the opposite effect, making users feel as if things are “slowing down.” Thus, they are often called “downers” on the street. Doctors primarily prescribe stimulants for ADHD and narcolepsy. The drugs can also help aid weight loss, as they can decrease appetite.

Sometimes misleadingly called “synthetic marijuana” and marketed as a “natural,” “safe,” legal alternative to marijuana. For more information, see the Synthetic Cannabinoids DrugFacts. Medications that increase alertness, attention, energy, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate. For more information, see the Misuse of Prescription Drugs Research Report.

Effectively, regular m@rijuana users feel like the same amount of drug is making them less and less and should consume more to feel the same. The FDA required that the drug carry the agency’s strongest warning, known as a black box warning, after it received reports of brain infections and meningitis in patients taking the drug. That can range from itching and rash all the way to a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Addiction is defined as chronic use of a substance despite negative consequences. Although peyote is a Schedule I drug, and is therefore illegal, the listing of peyote as a controlled substance does not apply to the use of peyote in religious ceremonies of the Native American Church.

Dissociative drugs work by interfering with the brain’s receptors for glutamate. This chemical plays a significant role in cognition, emotionality, and pain perception. As the name implies, the drug affects a person’s sensory perceptions, causing hallucinations. The seven different types of drugs are categorized based on their effects. Each type of drug has its own set of characteristics and dangers.

Smoking also detrimentally affects the cardiovascular system. Additionally, some drugs, such as cocaine, have an association with potentially serious side effects, including heart attack and sudden death. A person who takes a drug containing fentanyl is more likely to overdose if their body does not have sufficient tolerance for strong opioids. Legal drugs, such as caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, and prescription medications, tend to be safe with responsible use. This drug affects everyone differently, but common effects include an increased appetite, euphoria, and relaxation.

The shorter a drug’s half-life is, the more you have to take to keep the drug concentration in your blood at a therapeutic level. Toxicity can also occur if you take two drugs of the same class at the same time. For example, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Advil (ibuprofen) and Aleve (naproxen) both treat inflammation and pain by blocking an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX).

Some of these risks include heart issues, addiction, worsening symptoms of mental illness, and death. Both nicotine and alcohol produce physical and psychological dependence. Nicotine produces long-term changes in cholinergic receptors and alcohol in GABAergics, this explains the physical dependence they cause. Psychological dependence is explained by the fact that both substances act on the reward system.

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